FM MCRP D FIELD HYGIENE AND SANITATION HEADQUARTERS , DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND COMMANDANT, MARINE CORPS. This page contains the US Army Field Manual on Field Hygiene and Sanitation. Field Hygiene and Sanitation (FM ) [The United States Army] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The purpose of this publication is to.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Heat Injuries Section II. The use of trade names or trademarks does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Defense DOD. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. This definition includes persons who are dying of disease or injury due to accidents directly related to hygine operation or mission to which they were deployed.

The acronym, DNBI, does not include service members missing involuntarily because of enemy action or being interned by the enemy as a prisoner of war. Historically, in every conflict hgyiene US has been involved in, only 20 percent of all hospital admissions have been from combat injuries. The other 80 percent have been from DNBI.

Excluded from these figures are vast numbers of service members with decreased combat effectiveness due to DNBI not serious enough gm hospital admission. The th Artillery and the th Engineer Battalions were part of a task force preparing to attack Guadalcanal. Both units fiels to be replaced medically evacuated without seeing any enemy action because they were not combat ready. The use of insect repellents and insecticides and the elimination of standing water would have prevented this.

Disease was an important detractor to this famous unit.

The medical threat faced by the Marauders in the jungles of Burma was great. Everyone was sick, but some had to stay and fight. Evacuation was limited to those with high fever and severe illness. One entire platoon cut the seats from their pants because severe diarrhea had to be relieved during gunfights. After a bold and successful attack saanitation a major airfield, Merrill’s Marauders sanitztion so decimated by disease that they were disbanded.

However, they occur most frequently during warm-weather training, exposure to high climatic temperatures, high humidity, and bright sunlight. These conditions make it difficult for the body to regulate its temperature.

Hot weather also increases daily water requirements, because body water is lost as sweat. Dehydration leads to added heat stress, increased susceptibility to heat injury, reduced work performance, sanittaion degraded mission capability. Exercising in the heat and humidity for 1 to 2 hours hyigene, gradually increasing the workload each day, can produce acclimatization. Refer to Table in Chapter 3. When the mission does not permit time for gradual increases in workload, then leaders and buddies must observe each other and ensure that everyone drinks plenty of water during each work period.

Individuals leaving hyguene cold or cool climate will require additional time to become acclimatized to a hot climate. Drinking water is a must in order to prevent heat injury.


If desired, individuals may add flavoring to the water to enhance consumption. It the flavoring is used, add it to water in your canteen cup. Do not add flavoring to the water in your canteen; it increases the risk of contamination and illness.

Never flavor the bulk source water supply. Flavoring the bulk source water supply will reduce the action of water disinfectants.

See Table for water intake requirements. However, they cannot replace and must not be used to meet all water requirements. Caffeine increases water requirements in all environments. NOTE The color and volume of the urine steam are good indicators of a service vield hydration status. If your urine stream is dark yellow and the volume is small, or if you are constipated and experience hard stools, you may not be drinking enough water.

Maintain a urine stream that is clear or light yellow. Thirst is not a good indicator of dehydration during physical activity. A hyviene period helps prevent dangerous increases in body temperatures by minimizing heat production. DO NOT take extra salt in meals unless medically indicated. One salt cield increases your water requirement by at least sanitatiin pint.

Salt draws water from muscles to dilute your blood. Salt tablets can cause vomiting. NOTE When the threat from biting arthropods is high, keep your shirtsleeves rolled down and pants bloused in boots. They can even occur with the proper planning and equipment. The cold weather and the type of operation in which the individual is involved impact on whether a service member is likely to be injured and to what extent.

The service member’s clothing, physical fk, and mental makeup are also determining factors. Well-disciplined and well-trained service members can be protected, even in the most adverse conditions.

Army Field Manual FM 21-10 (Field Hygiene and Sanitation)

Service members and their leaders must know the hazards of exposure to the cold. They must know the importance of personal hygiene, exercise, care of the feet and hands, and the use of protective clothing. Cold injuries may be divided into “freezing and nonfreezing” types. A freezing type is frostbite. The nonfreezing types are chilblains, trench foot, and immersion foot. Avoid tight clothing, including tight underwear. Remove or loosen excess clothing when working or in heated areas to prevent sweating.

The body loses large amounts of heat through the head. Evaporating liquids increase heat loss and cool the skin. Also, liquid stains on clothing will reduce the clothing’s protective effects. The use of tobacco products decreases blood flow to your skin. Dark yellow urine means you are not drinking enough fluids! You can dehydrate in cold climates too! Change wet or damp socks as sanitattion as possible. Socks can become wet eanitation sweating.

Apply foot powder on feet and in boots when changing socks. NOTE A decrease in physical activity reduces the exposure time necessary to produce injury.

In all types of footgear, feet perspire more and are generally less well ventilated than other parts of the body. Moisture accumulates in socks, decreasing their insulating quality. The feet are susceptible to cold injury and are less frequently observed than the remainder of the body. Do not rub face and ears. NOTE Rubbing cold extremities can be potentially harmful. Frostbitten areas that are rubbed can cause additional injury to the affected areas.


Solar UV exposure is doubled when you are surrounded by snow. The slower the return to a natural color, the more serious the potential for frostbite on the fingers and the toes. During extended activities in a cold environment, warming areas should be provided; for example, a service member performing guard duty. Even in mobile field situations these “camp followers” have historically amplified sanitation problems, often resulting in epidemics of diarrheal diseases that have caused many casualties.

FM – Field Hygiene and Sanitation –

This threat is even greater in urban areas converted to temporary or semipermanent military use. A dangerous temptation in field training or in deployment operations is to ignore the field sanitation standards. Some people think, “The rules don’t apply here.

There is no excuse for forgetting to vield protective equipment or failing to use it. Be sure to follow all safety precautions on all labels of the pesticides that you use. They are there for a reason— to protect your health.

Apply a ifeld layer of DEET first, then apply face paint. Gm Reapplication of DEET may be necessary check container label due to heavy sweating, or after river-crossing operations, exposure to rain, or in locations where arthropod density is very high.

This should be done before wearing in field training or military operations. Follow label instructions when applying to clothing.

NOTE Permethrin does not rinse out in cold water or rain or streams. Good personal hygiene practices reduce infestation of insects such as body lice and mites. If the anc permits, use the quartermaster laundry; otherwise, use a stream, lake, or washbasin. Air-dry uniforms, especially underwear and socks, if possible.

Allow vapors to disperse for 10 minutes before entering the enclosure. Generously apply DEET skin repellent to those areas likely to touch the insect net during sleep knees, hands, elbows, and feet to prevent bites through holes in the fabric.

Full text of “FM Field Hygiene and Sanitation”

Spiders and scorpions may rest under toilet seat or inside latrine box. If you cannot bring the snake’s head with you, get an accurate description of the snake to assist medical personnel in treating you. Clothing can also be a source of exposure if it is not properly cleaned after contact with poisonous plants. Toxic fruits can also cause significant harm to service members, ranging from minor wounds to rapidly fatal poisoning.

The threat is magnified for US military personnel who may be unfamiliar with native species and unaware of these poisonous plants and toxic fruits. During deployments, apply individual PMM.